Documents 

The documents in this section are divided into 4 categories:

Articles on Performance-based Road Management and Maintenance

Title

Description / Abstract

Cutting Costs and Improving Quality through Performance-Based Road Management and Maintenance Contracts - The Latin American and OECD Experiences , Dr. Gunter Zietlow, University of Birmingham (UK), Senior Road Executives Courses 2011, Birmingham, April 2011.

This paper provides a brief the history of Road Asset Management and Maintenance Contracts, describes the main reasons for implementing such contracts, presents the spectrum of performance indicators and response times being applied, gives special attention to the performance specifications and control procedures, summarizes how these contracts have been implemented in several countries around the world, and provides the lessons learned until now.

Performance-based Contracting for Preservation and Improvement of Road Assets, Natalya Stankevich, Navaid Qureshi and Cesar Queiroz, Transport Note No. TN-27, The World Bank, September 2005. This paper gives an excellent overview of the worldwide experience with the PBC approach, highlight the main advantages, the steps involved and the results generated. The document is intended to provide World Bank transport sector staff, Ministries of Transport and road agencies of developing and transition countries with a clear understanding of the benefits, and risks, of applying the PBC approach. 
This publication is also available in French, Russian, and Spanish. Please, consult the Transport website of the WB.

Using Micro-Enterprises to Create Local Contracting Capacity - The Latin American Experience, Dr. Gunter Zietlow, University of Birmingham (UK), Senior Road Executives Programme, Restructuring Road Management, Birmingham, 24-29 April 2005.

As PowerPoint Presentation

This paper describes how micro-enterprises are being created and used for road maintenance in Latin America. It covers the different types of contract and the different types of micro-enterprises being used and concentrates on the experiences gained in applying performance-based road maintenance contracts with road maintenance cooperatives in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua as well as other micro-enterprises in Uruguay.

Public-Private Options for Developing, Operating, and Maintaining Highways: A Toolkit for Policymakers, World Bank

The toolkit provides hands-on advice for creating an analytical framework that would support local policymakers in assessing different contracting, regulatory, and funding options for engaging the private sector in road development, operation, and maintenance. It specifically addresses important aspects of PBCs.

Output-based Aid in Chad -using performance-based contracts to improve roads, Andreas Schliessler, World Bank, 2005.

Despite Chad ' s recent debut as an oil exporter, its people rank among the world ' s poorest. Large parts of the country are left in extreme isolation by the lack of a backbone road network that is passable year-round. To tackle the poor internal integration, the government formulated the National Transport Program in 1999. And to address the need for sustainable road maintenance, it started a pilot project that moves from traditional input-based planning and contracting of maintenance, to the more output-based approach known as performance-based maintenance and management of roads (PMMR). The International Development Association (IDA) has provided funds for the project as part of its efforts to support an efficient and sustainable transport infrastructure - essential for promoting economic growth and development, and for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. A primate operator has been contracted to provide road services. Results so far are encouraging, and the Government plans to expand the share of the road network covered by PMMR contracts. The PMMR arrangement is being replicated in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Madagascar, and Tanzania.

Implementing Performance-based Road Management and Maintenance Contracts in Developing Countries – An Instrument of German Technical Cooperation,  G. Zietlow, November 2004. Eschborn, Germany. This paper provides a brief the history of Road Asset Management and Maintenance Contracts, describes the main reasons for implementing such contracts, presents the spectrum of performance indicators and response times being applied, gives special attention to the performance specifications and control procedures, summarizes how these contracts have been implemented in several countries around the world, and provides the lessons learned until now.
Best management Practices for Highway Maintenance Activities, British Columbia Ministry of Transportation, Victoria, British Columbia, 2004.

See under publications

The document deals with the best routine maintenance practices (BMPs) used in British Columbia. The BMPs are designed to provide guidance and recommended measures to achieve environmental protection.
Getting Ready for the First Renewal of the Sydney PSMC, Pavement Management Services, Road Runner. Issue 4, 2004. Newspaper article praising the system of performance specified road maintenance in Australia on the occasion of the first renewal of the Sydney PSMC.
Development of Performance Warranties for Performance Based Road Maintenance Contracts, Mehmet Egemen Ozbek, Blackburg, Virginia, April 23, 2004.  Based on the analysis of the first performance-based contract in Virginia, the paper examines the necessity of including performance warranty clauses in order to make the contractor comply with the contract and proposes templates for such clauses.
Maintaining Roads. Experience with Output-based Contracts in Argentina, Gerard Liautaud, World Bank. 2004 The paper describes how the National Road Administration of Argentina contracted most of their national nonconcessioned road network using performance-based contracts which include some initial rehabilitation.
DC Streets: Innovation Yields Results, FHWA. 2004 This report deals with the experiences gained in the first performance-based road maintenance contract in Washington DC.
A framework for monitoring performance-based road maintenance, Juan Carlos Piñero, Blacksburg, Virginia, Dec. 2003. Comprehensive dissertation detailing a framework for monitoring performance-based road maintenance contracts. Data taken mainly from the first performance-based contract in Virginia.
Outsourcing of State DOT Capital Program Delivery Functions, TRB (Transport Research Board), Vienna, Virginia, November 2003. The paper gives guidance for State (USA) DOTs (Department of Transport) on the outsourcing of major program responsibilities, provides recommendations for innovative practices in the management and outsourcing of program delivery functions, and reviews current practices and evaluates the effectiveness, benefits, and concerns of the outsourcing of primary program delivery functions by DOTs.
An international Perspective – Long-term Performance-based Road Maintenance Contracts in Western Australia, T. Engelke , Paper for the Bay Roads Exposed Conference, Rotorua, April 27 to 29, 2003. Main Roads Western Australia. This paper outlines the objectives, contract structure, the results to date and Main Roads' experience with the performance-based contracts in Western Australia and provides comment on key lessons learned since commencement of the contracts.
Evaluation Using The Quality Price Risk Trade Off (QPRTO), Bloxam, M., Paper for the Bay Roads Exposed Conference, Rotorua, April 27 to 29, 2003. Bloxam Burnett & Olliver The paper discusses the methodology used to evaluate the first Performance Specified Maintenance Contract in New Zealand.
The Integration of Transit and WBOPDC Requirements into a Single Performance-based Contract, Hayes, Paper for the Bay Roads Exposed Conference, Rotorua, April 27 to 29, 2003. Bloxam Burnett & Olliver. Courtesy of Bloxam Burnett & Olliver, Transit NZ and Western Bay of Plenty District Department of Main Roads, New Zealand. This paper outlines the differences between the requirements of Transit New Zealand (responsible for the national roads) and the Western Bay of Plenty District (responsible for their district roads) in the management of their respective road networks and their approach to performance based contracting, and the way in which the requirements of each were integrated into the Bayroads contract document. The information provided is intended as a guide for those with an interest in the structure of the contract document, rather than providing details for the technical specialists.
Pavement Deterioration Modelling in Long Term Performance based Contracts: How far Does it Mitigate the Risk for Client and Contractor?, Chris Parkman, John Hallett, Theuns Henning and Mike Tapper, 2003. The paper addresses a number of issues based on New Zealand experience: the role of pavement modelling in the overall tender process; the translation of organisational objectives into performance measures and the associated technical analysis; issues of data quality and hoe they can be managed; the degree to which calibration can be achieved; and the need for sensitivity testing to highlight the level of confidence in the outputs. Recommendations are made on where further work is required in the future in order to improve the applicability of pavement modelling techniques to the performance based contracting process.
Innovative Project Delivery Methods for Infrastructure, Pekka Pakkala, International Perspective. Helsinki 2002. The paper attempts to demonstrate practices and methods that can be utilized by client organizations to more effectively secure products and services. The paper mainly draws from experiences from the road sector of countries like Australia, Canada, England, Finland, New Zealand, Sweden, and the USA. 
Pavement Preservation Compendium: "DC Streets" is a Capital Success, FHWA. 2002. This report deals with the experiences gained in the first performance-based road maintenance contract in Washington DC.

Review of VDOT’s Administration of the Interstate Asset Management Contract, Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission of the Virginia General Assembly, Virginia, USA, 2001.

The audit report reviews the asset management contract of some 250 miles of Interstate Highways in Virginia, USA. This was the first performance based road management contract executed in the USA.

A review of achievable efficiencies and associated issues under output performance based contracts [PDF], Ewan Hunter ; Rowan Kyle,  Contracting the Future NZIHT Symposium, October 2001. The paper discusses the currently employed delivery methods namely the conventional, the hybrid, and the Performance Specified Maintenance Contract contract methods and examines the efficiencies, which have been realized in terms of both reactive maintenance expenditure and the outcomes achieved on the ground with respect to network condition as it is currently measured for two specific examples.

Imperatives in Future Road System Management Improved Road Maintenance Productivity - The Australian Case, Malcom Frost. Paper prepared for the 14th IRF World Congress in Paris, 2001.

The paper challenges the commonly held view that more investment is needed to arrest the declining state of the road system in Australia. It assumes that the real need is for additional roading (road construction and maintenance) output to be invested into the system, and debates the various mechanisms for that additional output to be achieved. It works towards the premise that government should only increase investment (and hence raise taxes and charges) when it can be satisfied that the current investment is being optimally spent.

A number of methods of improving the efficiency and effectiveness of road maintenance are discussed, including a comparison of the various forms of maintenance contracting being used in the world today. The advantages and disadvantages of each type are reviewed in terms of the technical, financial, economic, social, political, and risk factors. Many common views on forms of road maintenance delivery are also discussed and challenged.

Best Practices of Outsourcing Winter Maintenance Services, VMS Inc., 2001. A study of the privatization of snow removal by state and local governments. Nearly 70 transportation agencies and organizations worldwide participated in this study written by transportation industry veterans. The summary at the beginning of the paper gives a good overview of the complex issues involved.
Review of VDOT's Administration of the Interstate Asset Management Contract , December 2000. There is a summary, full report and a presentation of the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission of the Virginia General Assembly dealing with the first Performance-based Management and Maintenance Contract in Virginia for part of their interstate highway system.

Asset Management in the Road Sector, Expert Group on Asset Management Systems (IMI), OECD, 2000.

The paper defines the term asset management, discusses the components of an asset management system, the data requirements and analysis procedures, the accounting for the capitalization of assets, performance monitoring, the benefits of asset management systems, and the implementation of asset management in OECD member countries and gives some conclusions and recommendations for future actions.

Asset Preservation Plan for the District of Columbia National Highway System, Michael Baker Jr., Inc., Washington, D.C., Prepared for the Federal Highway Administration U.S. Department of Transportation and District of Columbia Department of Public Works, Nov. 1999. This document describes the scope of the first performance-based contract for the federal roads within Washington DC including the assets to be preserved, the condition to which the assets should be raised and maintained, and the means by which  District of Columbia Department of Public Works will ensure the performance of the management company responsible for the task.
The Quality of Road Service, Evaluation, Perception and Response Behavior of Road Users, PIARC (The World Road Association),1999. Pages 72 to 78, 108 to 118.  The summary at the beginning of the paper gives a good description of the rather complex issues involved. The paper provides some guidance with respect to the definition of service levels from the perspective of the road user.

Privatized Highway Asset Management - Management of Subcontract Maintenance, Kent O. Lande, P.E. Asset Manager, VMS, Inc. Richmond, VA, October 1999. 

The paper describes the experiences of the contractor (VMS, Inc.) with the Highway Asset Management Contract with the Virginia Department of Transportation covering some 250 miles of Interstate highways.

Literature in Spanish

Contratos de Conservación Vial por Niveles de Servicio ó por Estándares - Experiencias de América Latina Alberto Bull, Dr. Gunter Zietlow, 14th IRF World Congress in Paris, 2001. 

This paper provides a brief the history of Road Asset Management and Maintenance Contracts in Latin America, describes the main reasons for implementing such contracts, presents the spectrum of performance indicators and response times being applied, gives special attention to the performance specifications and control procedures, summarizes how these contracts have been implemented, and provides lessons learned and recommendations for future contracts

Gestión de la Conservación Vial en Colombia, Fernando Sánchez Sabogal, 14th IRF World Congress in Paris, 2001. 

The paper describes the different types of road maintenance contracts used in Colombia, including performance-based contracts

Mantenimiento Partizipativo de Caminos Rurales, Manual Técnico, Cooperación Guatemala Alemania, Guatemala, agosto 2001.

The document describes the participatory road maintenance system for rural roads in Guatemala. It is also a technical manual meant as orientation for the maintenance of rural roads.

 

Sample Terms of Reference for the Preparation and Procurement, Contract Supervision and Facilitation and Training

Title Description / Abstract
Terms of Reference for the preparation of bidding documents for Performance-based Management and Maintenance of roads in several countries, World Bank.  
   

 

Bidding and Contract Documents

Title Description / Abstract

Sample Bidding Document

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Procurement of Works and Services under Output- and Performance-based Road Contracts and Sample Specifications, The World Bank, Washington, D.C., October 2006

This Sample Bidding Document for Procurement of Works and Services under Output- and Performance-based Road Contracts (OPRC) has been issued by the World Bank on a trial basis in response to a growing demand worldwide for this type of service, especially in developing countries. It is structured to fit the specific nature of the Output- and Performance-based Road Contracts and differs substantially from traditional contracts for civil works. The present document is designed to allow for a certain degree of flexibility in its use according to the specific needs of the road network under contract. The main focus of the contract is on maintenance services to be provided by the contractor, including physical works on the Roads under contract which are needed to maintain the agreed service quality levels, but also all activities related to the management and evaluation of the road network under contract.
Highway Maintenance Contracts, British Columbia Ministry of Transportation The webpage provides links to several contract relevant documents. 
Road Maintenance Performance Contracts (RMPC) for Main Roads, Queensland, Australia The webpage provides links to several contract relevant documents. 
Performance Specified Maintenance Contract PSMC 001, TNZ Contract No. 2/98-025/601, Request for Tender, 18 September 1998. Partial document only. The document contains parts of the Request for Tender of the first PSMC in New Zealand.

Contracts in Spanish

Colombia, Contrato para Microempresas Asociativas, Municipio de Popayan, 1999

This is an example of a contract for road maintenance using cooperative micro-enterprises.

Uruguay, Especificaciones Técnicas del Contrato de Gestión y Conservación de la Regional 4, Ministerio de Transporte y Obras Públicas, Dirección de Vialidad, Uruguay, 1999.

These are the technical specifications of a specific performance-based road maintenance contract in Uruguay.

Argentina, CREMA, Pliego de base y condiciones técnicas generales y especificaciones técnicas particulares para la licitación de contratos de recuperación y mantenimiento de malla de carreteras, malla: 506, Provincia: Entre Rios, Ruta No. 127, República de Argentina, Dirección Nacional de Vialidad; Sección 5. Especificaciones Técnicas, 27 de febrero de1997.

These are the general and technical specifications of a specific performance-based road maintenance contract in Argentina.

 

Training Materials

Title Description / Abstract
Training Courses for Performance-Based Management and Maintenance of Roads, World Bank, 2005. The course is structured in four parts and contains a good mix of modules, case studies and workshops:
  1. A comprehensive introduction (.5 day)
  2. Six modules going into details on topics that are briefly covered in the introduction
  3. Five case studies on PMMR in five different countries
  4. Two workshops (seven sessions)